Have you, dear traveller, ever noticed how different places scattered across the face of the globe seem almost to exist in different universes? As if they were permeated throughout with something akin to 19th century luminiferous aether, unique, determined by that place's history? It's a trick of the mind's light (I suppose), but looking out across the Baía de Todos os Santos to the great Recôncavo, and mindful of the fact that more slaves entered this bay than did slaves enter any port anywhere else in the world...if nothing else one is easily brought to the conclusion that one is in fact in a place quite unlike any other.
* Is Salvador the world's most beautiful city? Though set upon a bewitching bay, hardly. But if by "magic" one means thousands of houses wherein adepts incorporate African deities -- dancing the dances of demigods to intoxicatingly complex rhythms and gorgeous melodies meant to call such entities into our world...
If by "magic" one means what one feels on starlit nights beneath broad banana leaves, witnessing elegant motion on dancefloors of beaten clay, the dispossessed moving to difficult syncopations with a controlled dignity beyond the reach of many if not most in more opportune places... then yes, Salvador & environs is magic.
And yes, the commonality, the common thread here, pulsing like a live sinew stretched tight across the well of Orpheus, is music. Brazil is The Musical Country. And Bahia is its magical capital.
Modern Salvador da Bahia (often incorrectly written as "Salvador de Bahia", "da" being a fusion of the preposition "de" and the definite article "a") is many things, these depending to some degree upon who is doing the conceiving and considering. It's the third largest city in the world's sixth economy, with innumerous modern apartment buildings looking like gleaming upended harmonicas, these filled with occupants of the professional classes who shop in New York and take their kids to Disney World. Ships fill the bay, carrying away industrial plugs for blast furnaces, resins, chemicals...the stuff of large-scale manufacturing by multinational corporations.
Yet of Salvador's 2,500,000 inhabitants, the vast majority are descendents of those who worked for the owners of the "big houses" on the plantations on the other side of the bay, and the big houses located in old Salvador, in what is now a neighborhood rather than the entire city, the area called Pelourinho (for the pillory which stood in various of its principal squares).
It's possible to live an almost European existence in Salvador if one moves within carefully circumscribed limits. From tower to imported car, along expressways to modern office buildings and clinics...but even a glance from the balconies of those well-stocked towers belies first-world fantasies; red-clay barracos -- simple houses, a step up (maybe) from shacks, crawl up hillsides and dip into valleys. The destination signs fronting Salvador city buses are emblazoned with destinations like Mussurunga, Massaranduba, Periperi, Alto do Cabrito...by way of areas called Ogunjá and Bonocó. Private schools for the more fortunate economic classes offer capoeira, alongside football (soccer), volleyball and such. Baianas de acarajé (women dressed in flowing white, sitting before their tables selling the foodstuff called-- more properly in Yorubá -- akara, the addition of "jé" rendering "to eat akara"), may be found evenings selling to lawyers and businessmen on their way home, cans of beer washing down the African comestibles.
Salvador and the Recôncavo from on high
There are thousands of houses of candomblé in Salvador, these vastly outnumbering the numerous Catholic churches and even the evangelical churches which have sprung up in the suburbs like toadstools, these latter attracting customers...worshippers that is...drawn to the harangues telling them that God desires their economic success too...
And the radio. There is Globo, owned by the family of now-departed Roberto Marinho, who parleyed his insider's connections with Brazil's dictatorship into the country's largest media empire -- playing its depressing mix of mostly American hits of the '70s and '80s. But across the dial, on both AM and FM, the clave and rhythms are most definitely of African derivation (although for the most part cheapened and debased). Publicly-owned Rádio Educadora however continues to demonstrate that not all is (to repeat) cheapened and debased in government here, with the occasional program of top-flight Brazilian music, including choro on Sunday mornings.
And of course there are the people themselves, their melanin content ranging from darkest African through dusky indigenous Indian to lightest European, the preponderance weighted toward the darker end of the spectrum. Although there are exceptions, the prevailing wisdom is, as expressed by sambista Ederaldo Gentil, "Todo branco tem negro na família" (Every white person has a black person in the family). In contrast to the United States, where "one drop" defines who is considered "black", the distinction between persons of European-heritage ethnicity and those of African-heritage ethnicity is conceived differently here. Part of this is due to the fact that, unlike in the United States, where the children of slave-owners and slave-women were themselves consigned to slavery, in Bahia this was often not the case, creating a class of mixed-race people ("black" in the United States) who were here called "moreno" and who had property, rights, and freedom. And with churning intermarriage and a mathematician's nightmare of racial combinations in people's backgrounds, particularly amongst the "common" people, and the consequent commonality of cultural background, the feeling of I'm the black or white dude and he or she is white or black is rare here except amongst the top-most, old landed economic class, or would-be snobs who ascribe to that benighted class's pretensions and prejudices (and there are more than a few of the latter around). Salvador is not home to a racism-free society as is often touted...but day-to-day personal relations between most people are thankfully free of the back-of-the-mind fencing so common between people of different continental heritage in the United States.
Salvador, Brazil's First Colonial Capital...
Salvador (the city was generally referred to as "Bahia" until well into the twentieth century*) sits on a spit of land sticking south south-west into the Atlantic Ocean. And although it sits well within the tropics at a southern latitude of thirteen degrees, it receives a refreshing sea-breeze which seldom falters until the wee hours of the morning when things have generally cooled off anyway. The city sits on a huge bay, a Baía de Todos os Santos (the Bay of All Saints), and the topography is predominently hill and valley.
* See an interesting article from the New York Times dated July 14, 1874, in which "our own correspondent" (the Times', that is) refers to the "town" as "Bahia"...
It's for this reason that people speak of a cidade alta (upper city) and cidade baixa (lower city). Both are connected on the bay side by the famous Elevador Lacerda, a "marvel" hailed mightily in most guide books. Forget the marvel (you'll see what I mean when you're on it), but the elevator does beat walking up down the steeply inclining streets which serve the same function of connection. There is a fifteen centavo charge for the ride. That's less than nine cents as I write, so who's complaining. There's also the nearby Plano Inclinado, same price.
The Elevador Lacerda (transportation between Salvador's high and low ground),
with the Forte São Marcelo (Bahia's belly button) off to the right
(Since writing the above the elevator building has been refurbished and it's actually quite nice now -- lots of polished Brazilian granite. It's also air-conditioned, something of a blessing during peak periods (now since that was written the air-conditioning is long no longer functioning!). The best part of all however is still what was always there: the magnificent view from the upper level.)
From the Cidade Baixa (Lower City)
The old elevator at Taboão, several blocks away, ran from 1865 to 1961
And it's this rugged geography which is so disorienting to people new to the city. Neighborhoods (bairros) tend to be built on the heights, with thoroughfares twisting around and between. Streets zigzag and change names, and a lot of them are one-way, necessitating roundabout ways of arriving at any given destination. It can take a long time to catch on, but by the same token it can add even more of an element of mystery to the place.
One of the principal characteristics of the city is the outgoingness of the people. People talk to strangers here, are friendly to them. People are not divided by that initial suspicion of strangers that marks so many other places, at least as far as where sociability is concerned. It's easy to meet people.
But there's another characteristic which often takes first-time visitors to Salvador by surprise: I'm referring to the city's urbanscape, its architecture, building and home styles. Colonial Pelourinho was built while Bahia was the economic powerhouse of South America, and many of the buildings are splendid. Most of the rest of Salvador was built on a shoestring, and the results range from the unpainted claybrick shacks of the poor to the reinforced concrete buildings one sees everywhere (usually in need of a painting), to the more expensive modern and generally undistinguished apartment towers found in the middle and upper-middle class neighborhoods. People expecting leafy tropical bungalows may be disappointed. This is an urban, third-world city, with plenty of crowds and traffic jams. It does, however, retain its renowned Bahian soul, and tropical serenity (along with those leafy tropical bungalows) is very close at hand.
Schubert's Ave Maria is traditional in Salvador at 6 p.m. Here is a streaming excerpt of a lovely, unusual, and uniquely Brazilian version of it played in Cantinho da Mara ("Mara's Little Corner") in one of Salvador's older neighborhoods on Saturday evening, September 11th, 2004
Lastly, perhaps the quality most fundamental, most elemental to Salvador and Bahia, most striking in the sense of setting this place apart and making it its own -- is its zeitgeist. Bahia's timeframe runs independently of the (developed) world's decade-defined stages of development. Music here, for example, isn't 70s, 80s, or 90s. It is, rather, measured in its distance from -- or more precisely by its proximity to -- the senzalas (slave compounds) of centuries past, to the quilombos (communities formed by runaway slaves) of both past and present. Likewise for Bahia's lovely and deadly Afro-Brazilian martial art of capoeira, continuing to grow and develop without abandoning the ethos of struggle that spurred its creation in the first place. Oxalá, Oxóssi, Xangô -- Yemanjá and Iansã -- all virtually forgotten on their native ground across the Atlantic -- are known to everybody here, determining to a large degree the makeup and timing of Salvador's yearly social calendar. The zeitgiest of Bahia is that its time is its own, a time in many ways above and independent of the carryings on of the rest of the world.
Moreover these manifestations of popular culture are current, now, modern. They hearken back to the past but aren't stuck in it. They are not continually re-enacted museum pieces but rather a part of a continuing flowering and evolution. Put simply, they are a part of life here.
Salvador & Environs, Statistically Speaking
According to the IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), the official government measuring arm, the population of Salvador (per the 2010 census) is 2,480,790. In one way it doesn't feel like there are two-and-a-half million pessoas here, and in another it does. Salvador has a town-like ambience, its tallest buildings are apartment buildings, not commercial, the downtown area (Centro) consisting of a motley scrum of colonial-era and colonial-era-like buildings (many quite beautiful, if in need of repair) and '60s era aluminum-and-glass (the stuff that seemed so modern at the time but which, like bell-bottoms on civilians, didn't take long to become outdated). The view from the plano inclinado will show you what I mean...
But the streets are crowded, with people and cars. Easy credit has heated up the economy and enabled a lot of people who couldn't afford their own transportation before have it now. Gridlock is a fact of life here, something to plan for, try to avoid, and for a lot of people, to live with on a daily basis. Motorcycles are everywhere too, whizzing and whipping between and across lanes as if their riders were immortal. When one of the errant falls, eventually to be picked or scraped up and hauled off to hospital, heaven, or hell, traffic backs up even further in a chain-reactions snaking throughout the city.
Principal Towns of the Recôncavo
Santo Amaro (at the north end of the bay, hometown to Caetano Veloso and Maria Bethânia as well as to a number of less famous but nevertheless wonderful musicians; an hour away from Salvador by car), had a population of 56,971 at the time of the census.
Igreja da Purificação in Santo Amaro
Listen to Santo Amaro's Maria Bethânia sing Feita na Bahia (Made in Bahia),
preceeded by a couple of sambas-de-roda
Cachoeira, one-time capital of Bahia and a beautiful old town retaining its colonial "charm" (located another twenty minutes or so beyond Santo Amaro), weighs in at 31,630. Cachoeira and environs are a vast redoubt of candomblé.
Capela d'Ajuda, the first church built in Cachoeira; construction began in 1595
Listen to Cachoeira's Os Tincoãs sing Capela d'Ajuda
These are the two principal towns in the Recôncavo, the great, concave-shaped area around the Baía de Todos Santos, Brazil's richest sugarcane-growing region (due to the quality of the massapé, soil as black and rich as that beneath Indiana cornfields). I've been neglecting my Bahia-Online duties, but I promise to gather myself up, pull myself away from conversation over cachaça with the fishermen and subsistence farmers in the small villages scattered throughout the Recôncavo (many of which villages began life as quilombos, villages-of-refuge founded by runaway slaves) and do my small part in imparting what I can of their lives, and art (chula and samba-de-roda).
Above is the group Samba Chula de São Braz, built around brothers João do Boi and Alumínio Saturno.
São Braz is a small fishing village located at the north end of the Baía de Todos os Santos, founded as a quilombo, a village of runaway slaves.
What they're playing is samba chula, primordial samba, analogous in Brazil to the delta blues in the United States.
What is Salvador's Relationship With the Recôncavo?
For a lot of people -- both those who live here and those who come here -- it doesn't matter. But to the point is an anecdote related to me by Mateus Aleluia, of Os Tincoãs, a now-legendary vocal group from Cachoeira: "A Bahian slave once said to his master, 'You have conquered us, but our culture will conquer yours.'" Whether this is true or not hinges upon what one calls culture, but in that the pervading art of Bahia -- as in most all Brazil -- is music, and given that the greatest root of this musical culture is buried deep within Recôncavo massapé, a strong argument may be made for its validity.
The peninsula upon which Salvador is situated is like the thumb of an open and grasping hand, what is normally thought of as the Recôncavo then being defined by the curved index finger. This way of definition developed when agricultural products were brought to Salvador by boat, sometimes making their way first down the Paraguaçu river after having been carried overland from the sertão (backlands) to Cachoeira, the river debouching into the bay at Maragogipe. The city of Bahia (as it was usually called then) was crouched on the bay, comprised of a commercial district much smaller in area than today (landfill has increased it greatly), the area around the upper section of the elevator, and what is now called Pelourinho.
Much of the remainder of the peninsula was given to sugarcane plantations, and dotted within the Atlantic rainforest were countless quilombos; both are attested to today in commonly used city names. The neighborhood of Garcia was once Fazenda Garcia (fazenda being a farm or plantation), and this denomination is still used today to distinguish one end of Garcia (fim-de-linha) from the other (the Campo Grande end). Neighborhoods Engenho Velho de Federação and Engenho Velho de Brotas are so called for the old mills (engenhos velhos) which pressed the caldo (juice, so to speak) from the cane so laboriously hacked out of the fields. The neighborhood of Cabula is named for an nkisi (deity) of candomblé angola (the first candomblé to arrive in Bahia)...whose rhythms comprise the basis for samba, meaning that the rhythms to which so many in the world inexpertly swayed as Stan Getz's saxophone soared and João and Astrud Gilberto sensuously intoned -- this paragon of suave Brazilian sophistication -- was born in the rough senzalas of Bahia. Ironically enough, the barefoot senzala version was/is far more sophisticated than the sophisticated version.
But times have changed, and Cabula is now a crowded, non-descript middle-to-working class Salvador city neighborhood (plenty of candomblé around though), and Engenhos Velhos de Federação and Brotas are swarming working class neighborhoods (ditto the candomblé); the senzala samba, the samba chula and samba-de-roda have disappeared. A vastly simplified and deeply moronified version -- Bahian pagode -- is heard everywhere in Salvador, but the real-deal stuff has died out here in the big city. It remains, however, a potent force on the remainder of its native ground, the Recôncavo proper, where it is danced to on pounded earth, under moonlight broken by banana, palm and mango leaves, lifting the souls of its participants almost like something religious, which it was, and gods aside, is.
If You're Thinking About Coming to Brazil,
and You Can't Stand the Heat...
A little advice: Brazil is not a European nation. It's not a North American nation. It's not an East Asian nation. It straddles -- jungle and desert and dense urban centers -- both the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. It absorbed over ten times the number of African slaves taken to the United States of America. Its people have lived under oligarchy, plutocracy, dictatorships and massive corruption, with elements of these still strongly entrenched here today.
Despite what the Brazilian government tells you, and what is constantly repeated in news outlets, Brazil is a poor country. It may have the world's sixth largest economy, but the money is hoarded at the top. The vaunted "new middle class" is a cynical creation into which are placed families earning from 291 reais per month per person.* Around 125 dollars per. 375 dollars monthly for a family of three. Does that sound "middle class" to you? The supposed purchasing power of these families was based in easy credit at high interest rates made possible by the exertions and offices of the federal government (largely for the government's own purposes and benefit; there are huge taxes baked into almost every purchase in Brazil), and the inevitable has happened...the spending party is over.
*Here you can get it straight from the Brazilian government, on page 5.
Brazil has buzz...not the shallow buzz of fashionable moment...but the deep buzz of a population which in spite of -- or perhaps because of -- the tough slog through life to which they are submitted daily by humanity's dregs-in-fine-linen, have chosen not to pull themselves glumly through it all but to make the best of things and lift their voices in song and their bodies in dance...to eat well and converse well and much and to wring the joy out of day-to-day happenings and small pleasures which are so often ignored or set aside in the European, North American, and East Asian nations.
For this Brazil has a genius perhaps unparalled in all other countries and societies, a genius which thrives alongside peeling paint and holes in the streets and roads, under bad organization by the powers-that-be -- both civil and governmental -- under a constant rain of societal indignities...
Which is to say that if prospective first-time visitors to Brazil are expecting light and orderliness, they will certainly find the light! And the buzz of a people who for generations have responded to privation at many different levels by somehow rising above it.
The Elemental Importance of Samba
Brazil, outside of itself, is known primarily for football and samba. As expressions of national flair and exuberance, if not mania. But with respect to samba, this view misses a much deeper point...Slavery is an unfortunate fact of human history, justified by Plato, practiced by, among others, the esteemed founders of the American Republic. In Brazil, among other reactions to this execrable inhumanity, came -- on the sugarcane plantations of Bahia -- the creation of a new dance and accompanying rhythms and music...not mere entertainment, but a celebratory affirmation of the human spirit under the worst conditions possible.
This then is samba's importance: A graceful metaphorical step away from laughing in the face of Death, it's another in humanity's arsenal of not only survival mechanisms, but of prevailing mechanisms.
But What About the Bossa Nova?
Nothin' nova 'bout his bossa! Jorge Veiga
"Bossa" is, or was rather, Brazilian slang for a certain stylishness. In terms of music it was first used as per "samba de bossa", for music that had nothing to do whatsoever with bossa nova. This was the swinging music of Jorge Veiga, Cyro Monteiro, Elza Soares and a few others: boppin' big band samba as Brazilian as Jorge Veiga's finely-sculpted pencil moustache.
But for some people hot ain't always cool, and in the '50s the more well-to-do kids began to see samba as square old-guy music. They looked to movieland, the United States, and its popular music and cool jazz. Their music was sambafied when João Gilberto arrived in Rio from Bahia, playing samba rhythms as sophisticated jazz chords on his guitar; he was welcomed as an avatar.The rhythms he'd picked up on the streets of Juazeiro, Bahia were grafted into music conceived with another sensibility in mind. This wasn't heat and trial imbuing music meant to dance to. It wasn't torpor...it was languour. Cool. Defanged. Declawed. Gutted of the complicated polyrhythms played in samba. Domesticated down. De-Africanized.This isn't to say there isn't genius there (nor to say that there wasn't a lot of samba which adopted the label "bossa nova" for marketing purposes; nor to say that there wasn't a lot of blurring of the line between samba and bossa nova). Antonio Carlos Jobim wrote achingly beautiful melodies. Luiz Bonfa's Manhã de Carnaval (especially as sung by Elizeth Cardoso for the film Orfeu Negro, Black Orpheus) is supreme...But while bossa nova utilizes elements of samba, it isn't samba in the deepest sense*.
* To this day João Gilberto says that what he plays and sings is samba, and not bossa nova.
And Bahia? You might hear bossa nova here (just as you might hear it in Tokyo), but in reality this is sambaland. It's The Land Where Samba was Born, after all. It's African Brazil, and therein lies the fundamental difference between samba and bossa nova: samba is African; bossa nova isn't.
The Gods of Brazil
Did you know that Brazil has gods (football aside)? In the sense that the Greeks and the Romans did? The Greek and Roman gods were done in by Constantine (first blow) and Theodosius (final blow). The gods of Brazil were born in Africa and arrived in Brazil within the negreiros making the Middle Passage, a passage which transported not only people, but a culture. There was a great attempt by the Brazilian poobahs to exterminate the gods of Africa in Brazil, but it didn't work.
And as the Roman emperors moved to extinguish the very real belief in Jupiter, Apollo, Venus, Minerva and the rest, banning the ceremonies to these deities, the Brazilian "authorities" banned the ceremonies devoted to Oxalá, Oxossi, Iansã, Yemanjá and the rest. But like the ultimate futility of the communist stomping-on of Christianity in Russia, Poland, et al, the piety of the Brazilian ruling class was to no avail (can't you people ever mind your own business!???).
Now, the Greeks and Romans had statues; magnificent, wondrously conceived, wrought and elaborated statues. The Africans had rhythms, and melodies...magnificent, wondrously conceived, wrought and elaborated rhythms, over which are floated (they aren't attached, per Western music) melodies ranging from inspired to sublime. Some of these rhythms (one in particular) are the basis of Brazilian popular music.
So as marble adorns Rome, rhythm adorns Brazil...but to carry the analogy further, as the statues have with the passage of time become fewer and farther between, the modernization of Brazilian popular music has left the rhythms fewer and farther between (excepting those in Bahia's houses of candomblé, these houses multiplying greatly in number over the past few decades)...
But this is Brazil, isn't it? With music everywhere?
Paulinho da Viola - Looks pretty cool to me!
Yes, and yes, but. Samba and its vertentes are based in polyrhythms. And while one may say that Brazilian music was enriched by the confluence of African rhythm-and-melodies and European melodies-and-harmonies, the rhythmic component was, with the Americanization of the 1950s, and then under the effects of the British invasion of the '60s and the astounding market success of first-world music, impoverished. Speaking frankly, it was dumbed down. Detexturized. Anesthetized. Edge and angle taken out. Soothed and smoothed... Witness the birth of bossa nova and MPB (música popular brasileira)! Yes, there was genius there, but not in the strictly African-derived part of the music...that was old-fashioned, not hip.
Thank god for unhip people like Paulinho da Viola! Paulinho came of age in the 60s, when Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil went hippie, they celebrating the we-can-do-anything culture with their invention of tropicália, one ear to the sidewalks of San Francisco and the intersection of Haight-Ashbury...
Paulinho played samba then. He plays samba now. Music. Where somebody sings. And people play instruments. No BS. Paulinho's music was never modern, but it is timeless.
The great Bobby Sanabria quoted the great Art Blakey as saying that a place where jazz is played is a holy place, Bobby following this up with (addressing his audience from the stage) "So thanks for coming to church!"
In the spirit of Art Blakey, a place where samba is played is a holy place...and we ain't talkin' 'bout The Girl from Ipanema. Samba, with all the assaults upon its integrity, never left Brazil. To quote again, now the words of the great Nelson Sargento, it agonizes, but it doesn't die. It's even cool now.
Samba is the local equivalent of those Roman statues.
Looks like Porgy & Bess, doesn't it? But no, it's Unidos da Tijuca, members one of the first samba schools...
Record shops are great things, aren't they? It's a pity that so few remain nowadays (I understand the economics all too well...anybody running one is either rich-by-other-means or crazy, and I'm not rich).
Beyond simply selling music, these establishments functioned as music-information clearing houses. There was often somebody around devoted heart-and-soul to "their" music, and people like this were/are a great font of information. Or there was much to be gleaned, and/or passed along, simply from/to other interested people. Computer algorithms for recommending "similar" music are better than nothing, but they can't replace and inquisitive and caring human mind.
For THIS we built the music codex. It's not a breakthrough in software engineering, nor is it meant to be. It's simply meant to be an alternative to the information function of the world's closed up record shops. One can recommend musicians (or anybody) by clicking on them. Then others can follow those recommendations to the recommended...and then follow the recommendations there...and there...and on and on...
There's a lot of absolutely amazing music there that you, my good friend, will never hear anywhere else!