Welcome to beautiful, benighted Brazil! The site you're on began as, and still is, a Guide to Salvador da Bahia, Brazil & Environs. "Bahia" is the old spelling for "bay", and the great bay which gave (the Brazilian state of) Bahia its name has a couple of unique distinctions:
1) More slaves entered this bay than were taken to any other place on the planet.
2) These slaves (or enslaved people rather), in vast testament to the human spirit, created arguably the most soulfully and physically uplifting music ever sung and danced to.
This music in Brazil is analogous to the delta blues and early jazz in the United States in that it is the deep source of so much which would develop out of it. But unlike the blues, known worldwide and played from Tokyo to Timbuktu, this primordial Brazilian music — still played by the descendents of the people brought to work the sugarcane plantations here — is virtually unknown, even in Brazil. Disparagement yields untold lost riches. So...
In order to alert the world to this music's existence, and that of the splendid people who make it, we've borrowed from pre-Civil War African Americans' "grapevine telegraph" (you know, origin of the expression "I heard it through the grapevine"?), allowing anybody to participate in recommending these people to anybody who might land on the recommender's page. But now the magic manifests itself:
For this to work for Raimundo Sodré and João do Boi and Bule Bule, it has to work for Herbie Hancock and Tommy Peoples and Quincy Jones. Because we're not talking about recommendations which reach to the next page and stop. We're talking about internet vectors, long series of recommendations, forming a vast interlinked grapevine capable of taking people from one person to any number of people in any number of places, playing any number of styles and variations of styles of music. Thus one might start with someone one knows personally, a friend maybe, or with somebody one knows of, a highly talented and respected musician, and wind up...God knows only where...there are pathways to (among so many other, better known, places) even the little villages on the far side of the Bay of All Saints, where so much inhumanity was unable to kill perhaps the noblest human virtue of all: the desire not merely to survive, but against all odds, somehow prevail. Music and the arts are powerful stuff. -- Sparrow Roberts
The Sacred & the Profana
The quantity of festas in Bahia is often remarked upon, often together in the same cliched breath along with "Terra da Alegria" ("Land of Happiness") or some such other similar hyperbole. Happy? That's debatable, certainly improbable given the widespread economic conditions here. But buoyant, resiliant, appreciative? Among the various traits and qualities which form the general ethos of Bahia, these three could be said to run wide, and deep.
And the buoyancy of the common people bubbles to the surface in part in the form of the festas populares (the largest and best known of which is of course Carnival), parties where the vicissitudes of life are temporarily cast off and old as well as young vão no pé (get up on their feet), moving in Bahian expression to the rhythms of Africa (albeit often layered under a sheen of sythesizers and pop stylings). The yearly cycle is generally considered to kick in with the Festa de Santa Bárbara, so that's where I'll begin...
(Note: In Portuguese the term "festa profana" is often used, in contrast to "festa religiosa". "Profana" simply means a non-religious component of something religious (i.e., a festival), unlike the English-language connotation of something vulgar or irreverent.)
December 4th. Santa Bárbara is syncretized with Iansã, wife of Xangô and goddess of the winds, lightning and storms (the saint's father was killed by lightning after having beheaded his daughter for becoming a Christian, so the story goes, which is the connection for the syncretization).
A Mass is celebrated in her honor on a stage set up in the Largo do Pelourinho (9 a.m.), and after (around 11:00 a.m.) a procession proceeds through Pelourinho to the Corpo de Bombeiros (Fire Station) in the Baixa dos Sapateiros, where participants are greeted by the sounding of sirens (Santa Bárbara being the patron saint of firefighters) and a grand carurú to be served to the public.
From there everything moves on to the Mercado de Santa Bárbara where the stallholders have prepared their own carurús to be served to the public (5 p.m.), and where it is very, very crowded. Red and white are the colors to be worn. Epa hei!
The clip above is from the 1962 film Pagador de Promessas, which won the Palm d'Or in Cannes that year. The setting is the Escadaria de Carmo, leading up to the Igreja do Passo (Igreja de Santa Bárbara in the film) on the day of the festa.
Carurú at the Corpo de Bombeiros in the Baixa dos Sapateiros on December 4th
The party then spreads across the street and into Pelourinho, where it runs late into the night.
This festival begins with sweetness & light, devolving in the late afternoon into what can be rough -- especially for obvious tourists -- in the area around the bottom of the Largo do Pelourinho.
You've got to hand it to the way Catholic feast days happen here in Salvador. For example, December 8th is the feast day of Nossa Senhora da Conceição -- Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception -- a putative commemoration of the day in 1854 that Pope Pius IX declared it to be dogma that Mary was conceived without the Original Sin resultant from Adam's partaking and sharing of the Forbidden Fruit in the Garden of Eden, ecclesiastic understandings which would lead to theological pronouncements upon unbaptised babies condemned to hell (St. Augustine), later to be modified to eternity in limbo (as explicitly expressed by Pope Pius X, for whom the elementary school I attended was named), limbo later to be waved away by Pope Benedict XVI (presumably a great relief for a great many African, Asian, and Jewish baby souls, assuming St. Augustine doesn't have God's ear).
The cortejo of Nossa Senhora da Conceição da Praia, opening the festa of December 8th in the Cidade Baixa
Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Conceição
This is Salvador's second biggest festa, with a moveable date, which is the Thursday before the second Sunday after the Dia de Reis (the Epiphany...the day the Christ-Child was visited by the Three Wise Men led by the star) on January 6th (that second Sunday sees the Festa de Bonfim, the lavagem -- washing -- originally being a scrubbing of the church in preparation for the Sunday festa).
The Lavagem do Bonfim is a paragon of Bahia's syncretism and merging of the sacred and the irreverent, wherein a group of flower-carrying Baianas -- followed by tens of thousands of people (a cortejo) -- walks from the Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição in the cidade baixo, to the Igreja do Bonfim (a Catholic church) -- and where upon arrival the Baianas wash the steps of the church in honor of the Senhor do Bonfim (who is either Jesus Christ, or Oxalá, or both, depending on how you look at it).
It's a huge party the whole way, with lots and lots of batucada (drumming), and a huge party around and behind the Mercado Modelo (earlier in the day), and a monstrous party around the Igreja do Bonfim (later in the day and into the night).
The first to arrive at the Igreja do Bonfim, having walked the 8 kilometers from the Igreja da Conceição, are the Baianas, closely followed by the publicity-seeking politicians, followed upon by the drumming, dancing, cerveja-imbibing multitudes.
Lavagem do Bonfim, from the collection of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, no year given
The celebratory step-washing is touted as, and in some respect in fact is, a manifestation of the syncreticism of Catholicism and Candomblé, but the fact that it's the steps that are washed and not the interior of the church itself is a reflection of a Catholic (and not so catholic) repudiation of the West African beliefs by the church poobahs.
In the immortal words of Paulinho Camafeu (who wrote the Ilê Aiyê athem Que Bloco É Esse), quem tem fé, vai à pé (he or she who has faith, goes on foot!). The anthem now associated with the Lavagem is Walmir Lima's Ilha de Maré.
Ah, eu vim de Ilha de Maré minha senhora
Prá fazer samba na Lavagem do Bonfim
Saltei na rampa do mercado e segui na direção
Cortejo armado na Igreja da Conceição
Aí de carroça andei, comadre,
Aí de carroça andei, compadre
Ah, quando eu cheguei no Bonfim minha senhora
Da carroça enfeitada eu saltei
Com água, flores e perfume,
A escada da colina eu lavei
Aí foi que eu sambei, compadre
Aí foi que eu sambei, comadre...
Aí foi que eu sambei, compadre
Aí foi que eu sambei, comadre...
Ah, I've come from Tide Island my lady
To samba at the Lavagem do Bonfim
I got off at the market ramp and headed for the cortege
Ready at the Church of the Immaculate Conception
From there I went by wagon, comrade,
From there I went by wagon, compadre
Ah, when I arrived in Bonfim my lady
From the decorated wagon I descended
And with water, flowers and perfume,
I washed the stairway on the hill
And it was then that I sambaed, compadre
And it was then that I sambaed, comrade...
And it was then that I sambaed, compadre
And it was then that I sambaed, comrade.
February 2nd. One of Salvador's most beloved (and beautiful) festas, and another exemplar of Salvador's melding of the sacred and not quite profane. The morning of the 2nd is announced with the sound of fireworks (at 5:00 a.m.), and the faithful arrive early to the seaside neighborhood of Rio Vermelho, bringing flowers and other gifts for Yemanjá, Yoruban goddess of the salt waters. The offerings are left in the Casa do Peso (the weighing house used by the local fisherman) after the givers have endured the long lines leading up to the repository, the gifts to be gathered up and placed into boats which at 4 p.m. or so will make their way 6 miles out into the waves to place floating, gift-bearing baskets upon the water. Offerings which do not return to shore are deemed accepted.
Candomblé Angola on the Beach
This all takes place to the accompaniment of wandering troupes of drummers, street capoeira, and general merriment and abandon. As the day wears on the festa becomes more and more carnivalesque -- thousands of people pouring in -- inexorably evolving into a dancing, surging street party of gargantuan proportions.
A Festa da Yemanjá
A Festa da Yemanjá
A Festa da Yemanjá
Every 13th of May, in Santo Amaro, Bahia
The origin of the name is polemical...some say it's a deliberate corruption of candomblé, meant to disguise the fact of what was actually happening in the market square. Another take is that of ethnolinguist Yeda Pessoa de Castro, which is (my translation):
"Bembé" is a word which could have two etymologies. One is Fon (Yoruba/Nagô), Bembé meaning "drum"... It could also be of Bantu (Congo/Angola) origin, in this case meaning a religious ceremony, praise, a prayer, as with the word candomblé itself..."
Why the 13th of May? Because it was on that date in 1888 that slavery was abolished in Brazil, by the signature of Princesa Isabel, Princesa Imperial Regente. And it was on the 13th of May in 1889 (some say it was several days earlier) that candomblé priest João Obá stood by the Subae river just off of Santo Amaro's market square and began to play a rhythm which when played in a house of candomblé was/is meant to call down a deity.
Santo Amaro's Market
One by one others arrived, and began dancing the dances of candomblé in what was the first instance of these religious manifestations being conducted outside a place meant for that purpose. And so a century later the tradition continues in Santo Amaro's market square proper, on the Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday incorporating May 13th (although Friday, being the day of Oxalá and a day in which candomblé is never conducted, sees a respite; the other activities which are ancillary to the Bembé, the samba-de-roda, capoeira and maculelê, continue).
The public terreiro in the market square, prepared for the Bembé.
The Bembé in full swing
Luzia's laudable history
The stage in the market square sees excellent music provided by musicians in the majority from Santo Amaro, this facet of the Bembé being organized by estimable Maurício Pessoa, music producer par excellence!
Maurício Pessoa, producer
Santo Amaro has a famous Veloso (Caetano), but it's the non-famous Veloso there (Rodrigo, Caetano's brother) who, in his capacity as Santo Amaro's secretary of culture, is working to preserve and promote Santo Amaro's deep, wonderful, and historically important heritage. Rodrigo is the festival's executive organizer.
The festa has been celebrated every year since with the exceptions of 1958 (when an explosion/fire killed 300 people) and 1989 (when the biggest flood in the history of the city took place). The festa is now regarded as protecting the city!
June 24th is the official date for the festa, but the buildup runs all through June. This buildup consists of forró (foHO) -- hillbilly music, sometimes of great artistry (Luiz Gonzaga, and his son Gonzaginha, both now deceased, are excellent examples) from Brazil's Northeast -- and dances to forró. The traditional instruments in a forró band are accordeon, hand-drum, and triangle, (sanfona, zabumba, and triângulo), but the music has become very commercialized and you'll hear synthed-up forró on the radio and at the big shows.
São João is a harvest festival, and in a sense it feels a lot more like Christmas than Brazil's "real" Christmas (or Natal). This is because it's a family-and-friends gathering, the tradition being to head into the interior, to the pequena cidade (small town) one or one's family hails from. If you don't have your own pequena cidade there are plenty of them in the interior promoting parties in June -- putting on shows and hosting quadrilhas (square dancing) for the general pubic. Amargosa is one of the best-known.
Here in Salvador Pelourinho gets the São João treatment nowadays, all beautifully decorated and with lots of shows...and Praça da Sé full of stands selling traditional cakes, liquors, etc.
Bombas, firecrackers, are traditional during São João and the time leading up to it (but it's not as bad as the firecracker throwing on Bastille Day in Paris!).
This festa in honor of the patron saint of widows and fishermen, held on the 29th of June (more forró), winds up the June celebrations.
Anniversary of the date of Bahia's independence from Portugal, which came the year after Brazil's declaration in 1822. In the morning the caboclos (there is a cabocla too; caboclos are Indian/African Indian/European mixes, or the spirits thereof, or sometimes just Brazilian Indians, depending on what authority you ask) are pulled from Lapinha through Santo Antônio além do Carmo to the Praça Municipal. In the afternoon they are pulled up Avenida 7 de Setembro to Campo Grande, accompanied by brass bands and followed by government representatives.
The Festa da Boa Morte is based in and around the date of the Catholic feast of the Assumption (the rise of the Virgin Mary into Heaven), but what makes it resonate so is less the festa's motive and more who is doing the feasting.
That would be the Irmandade da Boa Morte (Sisterhood of the Good Death), a lay society founded by members of 19th century Bahian society's lowest social caste, elderly slave women, women who bonded together to help provide for each other in life and in death in a sisterhood which continues to this day.
Whoever said "Age before beauty" had obviously never been to Cachoeira in mid-August.
7:00 p.m. - Mass in the sisterhood's chapel, in honor of departed sisters.
8:00 p.m. - A procession leaving the sisterhood's chapel and weaving through the streets of Cachoeira.
9:00 p.m. - The Ceia Branca (White Dinner, that is, foodstuffs without dendé, palm oil), for the sisters and invited guests. White clothing is worn.
7:00 p.m. - Mass in the sisterhood's chapel.
8:00 p.m. - A procession through the streets of Cachoeira, accompanied by musicians from the city's filarmônicas.
5:00 a.m. - A dawn calling with fireworks.
9:00 a.m. - An august meeting of the sisters in their headquarters with Bahia's governor, ministers, secretaries, and others of their ilk.
8:00 p.m. - Distribution of cozido (a boiled dinner of assorted vegetables and meats) and after, samba-de-roda.
8:00 p.m. - Closing ceremonies, with caruru (a meal built around a dish made with okra) and after, samba-de-roda!
On the 27th of September, the festa of the two Arab saints, a day when everybody eats carurú, a kind of vegetable stew made from quiabo (okra). When people say they are having a carurú however, they mean that guests are served a traditional plate including this food (and vatapá, among other things ), something representative of people coming together in family and friendship. Cosme and Damião are syncretized with the twin child orixás called Ibejis.
Table of Contents
An Introduction to Salvador da Bahia
A Brief History of Salvador da Bahia
Pelourinho: The Centro Histórico
Our Cana Brava Record Shop in Pelourinho, specializing in samba and related styles
Important Salvador Sites
Festas: The Sacred & the Profana
Carnival in Salvador, Bahia
Candomblé: Ubiquitous Deities
Capoeira: Dance Like a Baryshnikov; Hit like a Kalashnikov
Salvador's Afoxés & Blocos Afros
Fiction from Bahia
The Music of Bahia
› Currently working musicians from Bahia are here!
A Short History of the Music of Brazil
› Currently working musicians from Brazil are here!
A Tour Guide to Salvador & Environs
The Beaches of Bahia
Fab Apartments to Stay in While You're Here!
Salvador Central Members/Nodes
There's a lot of spectacle in Bahia...
Carnival with its trio elétricos -- sound-trucks with musicians on top -- looking like interstellar semi-trailers back from the future...shows of MPB (música popular brasileira) in Salvador's Teatro Castro Alves (biggest stage in South America!) with full production value, the audience seated (as always in modern theaters) like Easter Island statues...
Carlinhos Brown's Museu do Ritmo (Rhythm Museum; an entertainment venue) all done up Bahian faux tribal showbiz style...glamour and glitz and press agents...
Carlinhos Brown: Man with a Shtick...er...Stick
And then there's where it all came from...the far side of the Baía de Todos os Santos (Bay of All Saints), a land of subsistence farmers and fishermen, many of the older people unable to read or write...their sambas the precursor to all this, without which none of the above would exist, their melodies -- when not created by themselves -- the inventions of people like them but now forgotten (as most of these people will be within a couple of generations or so of their passing), their rhythms a constant state of inconstancy and flux, played in a manner unlike (most) any group of musicians north of the Tropic of Cancer...making the metronome-like sledgehammering of the Hit Parade of the past several decades almost wincefully painful to listen to after one's ears have become accustomed to evershifting rhythms played like the aurora borealis looks...
So there's the spectacle, and there's the spectacular, and more often than not the latter is found far afield from the former, among the poor folk in the villages and the backlands, the humble and the honest, people who can say more (like an old delta bluesman playing a beat-up guitar on a sagging back porch) with a pandeiro (Brazilian tambourine) and a chula (a shouted/sung "folksong") than most with whatever technology and support money can buy. The heart of this matter, is out there. If you ask me anyway.
Alumínio Saturno, resident of Pitinga, Bahia, chuleiro and subsistence farmer; now with God